¿Comprar un fondo solo teniendo en cuenta las comisiones? Error.

A la hora de invertir, uno de los factores que más preocupa a los inversores es el tema de las comisiones del producto que van a contratar, algo que vemos totalmente normal, pero que en el caso de los fondos de inversión en ocasiones puede derivar en un error.

Comisiones a la hora de comprar acciones

Históricamente, muchos inversores han comenzado a dar sus primeros pasos en el mundo de las inversiones con la compra y venta de acciones. Lógicamente en este caso, es normal que a la hora de trabajar con un determinado broker, las comisiones que este cobre por la operativa, puede ser algo determinante a la hora de invertir. Al fin y al cabo, una acción de Telefónica, es la misma se compre en Bankinter o en el Banco Santander. Sin embargo, las comisiones de estos dos bancos a la hora de comprar o vender esta acción son seguramente diferentes. En este escenario, buscar las comisiones más baratas es lo adecuado.

Comisiones a la hora de comprar fondos de inversión

Sin embargo, en el caso de los fondos de inversión, invertir siguiendo el criterio de buscar el fondo más barato, puede ser un gran error, ya que existen muchos fondos de inversión con políticas de inversión diferentes, y cuyas comisiones de gestión suelen depender del perfil de riesgo del fondo y de su ámbito de inversión.

Es decir, dentro de los fondos de inversión, existen fondos monetarios, de renta fija, mixtos, de renta variable… y dentro de cada uno de estos, pueden existir a su vez muchas subcategorías. Dependiendo de esto, el fondo cobrará una comisión mayor o menor. Como hemos comentado, esto suele depender de las dificultades de gestionar el fondo y su política de inversión. Es muy comprensible por tanto, que un fondo monetario que apenas conlleva gestión, tenga unas comisiones muy bajas, mientras que un fondo de renta variable emergente debería de tener unas comisiones bastante más elevadas.

Por norma general, cuanto más potencial de rentabilidad tenga un fondo de inversión, mayor será su comisión de gestión, ya que se supone que para lograr ese potencial de rentabilidad, tendrá que invertir en activos que conllevan una mayor volatilidad y por tanto unas mayores dificultades de gestión para su equipo gestor.

Así pues, creemos que el criterio de selección de fondos de inversión, nunca debe tener las comisiones del fondo, como un factor determinante a la hora de la contratación. Solamente en el caso de que dentro de nuestra selección de fondos, haya dos o tres de la misma categoría, con el mismo o similar perfil de riesgo y con la misma política de inversión, que elegiríamos por supuesto el más barato.

Si por ejemplo tenemos dos fondos de renta variable, uno que ha logrado a 3 años una rentabilidad media del 12% con una volatilidad del 8% y que cobra una comisión de gestión del 1,50% y otro que al mismo periodo ha logrado una rentabilidad media del 10% con una volatilidad del 9% y que cobra una comisión de gestión del 1%, no duden que nosotros nos quedaríamos con el más caro, ya que pagar esa mayor comisión nos sale a cuenta, visto que el fondo no solo saca más rentabilidad media, si no que lo hace con una menor volatilidad.

Nuestra recomendación, es que si ven un fondo que les gusta, y cobra una comisión de gestión que les parece elevada, vean si el motivo de que esa comisión es elevada está justificado. ¿Cómo?; comparándolo con fondos de la categoría, viendo si el gestor hace un buen trabajo y bate al índice y a la media de su categoría, mirando si el fondo tiene un buen ratio de Sharpe…

Si encuentran dos fondos de inversión que se ajustan a sus necesidades, y que son muy similares en su composición, rendimiento, volatilidad, gestión… entonces sí, compren el más barato.

 

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