¿Quieres ser un inversor de éxito? Diversifica tu cartera.

A la hora de planificar una buena cartera de inversión, muchos ahorradores nos preguntan cuál es el factor más a tener en cuenta según nuestra opinión.

Lo cierto es que para hacer una cartera competitiva hay que tener en cuenta muchos aspectos, ya que la cartera al fin y al cabo, tiene que cumplir una serie de objetivos y necesidades marcadas por el cliente. No obstante, si tuviéramos que señalar un aspecto “obligatorio” a la hora de hacer una cartera, sería el de la diversificación.

¿Qué es la diversificación?

Hay un famoso dicho en bolsa que dice, “no hay que poner todos los huevos en la misma cesta” y que viene a significar que no podemos invertir todo nuestro dinero en un solo producto. Este es el concepto primario que se esconde tras el concepto de diversificación.  Tratar de combinar una serie de productos para que la cartera esté lo mejor distribuida posible, lo que nos ayudará a disminuir el riesgo global de la cartera.

A la hora de diversificar, hay que tratar de hacerlo no solo por tipo de producto, si no también por zona geográfica, tipo de sector, estilo de gestión

Un activo que nos parece muy interesante de cara a poder hacer una buena diversificación de cartera, son los fondos de inversión, que nos pueden dar la posibilidad de invertir casi en cualquier producto que podamos imaginar, como renta variable (Europa, emergentes, grandes empresas, pequeñas empresas…), renta fija (deuda de gobiernos, deuda corporativa, high yield…) o gestión alternativa (market neutral, long/short…), entre otros…

Pero pongamos un ejemplo:

Es bastante común que nos reunamos con inversores a los que les gusta la renta variable, y suelen cometer el error de tener toda su inversión en acciones españolas. Esto provoca que todo su riesgo esté concentrado en renta variable española.

¿Cómo podríamos diversificar esta inversión?

Solamente con que este inversor que tiene toda su cartera en renta variable española, repartiera esta inversión en distintas zonas geográficas, como por ejemplo renta variable de Estados Unidos, renta variable Europea y algo de renta variable Asiática, estaría disminuyendo el riesgo de su inversión, mientras que sus perspectivas de rentabilidad, al seguir invertido en renta variable serían las mismas.

El hecho de que el riesgo se reduzca es muy fácil de comprender si pensamos que los mercados no siempre se comportan de la misma manera. Es decir, el mercado de referencia español, el Ibex35, no tiene por qué comportarse de la misma manera que el mercado chino o el alemán por ejemplo. De hecho, si ven el comportamiento que han tenido la bolsa alemana y la española en el último año, verán como la bolsa alemana se ha comportado mucho mejor que la española.

Así pues y como conclusión, creemos que si hay un factor que debemos de priorizar a la hora de configurar nuestra cartera de inversión, sería la diversificación sin ninguna duda, ya que es lo que nos ayudará a tener el riesgo de nuestra cartera más controlado.

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