¿Qué es el Valor Liquidativo de un fondo de inversión?

A la hora de ahorrar a través de fondos de inversión, hemos de tener en cuenta, que su funcionamiento es diferente al de otros productos como las acciones, los depósitos o la renta fija.

Para poder ir profundizando en el producto, es importante conocer algunos aspectos básicos y cierta terminología propia de los fondos de inversión, como por ejemplo la de valor liquidativo.

¿Qué es el valor liquidativo de un fondo?

Es el resultado de dividir, la valoración total de la cartera del fondo, entre el número de participaciones del mismo.

Con ello obtenemos un precio de valoración del fondo, que es el que se tomará como referencia para comprar o vender el fondo.

La mayoría de fondos de inversión, actualizan su valor liquidativo de manera diaria, pero no todos lo hacen a la misma hora, ya que ello depende de los activos que compongan su cartera.

Un aspecto a tener en cuenta de los fondos de inversión y que los diferencia de las acciones, es que si bien las acciones actualizan su precio con cada transacción que se produzca en el día, los fondos de inversión solamente actualizan su liquidativo una vez al día.


Cuando queremos comprar o vender un fondo de inversión debemos de tomar como referencia el valor liquidativo del fondo, que como hemos comentado anteriormente, es la última valoración de la cartera del fondo, dividido entre el número de participaciones.

Hemos de tener en cuenta no obstante, que el valor liquidativo publicado de un fondo, suele ir con cierto retraso con respecto a lo que han hecho los mercados, generalmente uno o dos días de retraso, ya que la valoración de la cartera se actualiza a cierre de mercado.

Esto se entiende mejor con un ejemplo. Imaginemos que el inversor Pedro, ve que el mercado español está subiendo un 2% y por tanto piensa que será buena idea comprar un fondo de inversión de renta variable española. Sería un error que Pedro pensara que cuando compre el fondo de inversión, ya habrá ganado ese 2%, ya que si compra el fondo ese mismo día, el valor liquidativo que se le aplicará será el del cierre de mercado, por lo que Pedro comprará el fondo después de que ya haya reflejado la subida correspondiente en su liquidativo. 

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